Recently, known as the Beijing Municipal Environmental Protection Bureau has also said it plans before the Spring Festival, first started publishing, including real-time three conventional pollutants, including PM10 hourly concentrations, and also published research for PM2.5 monitoring data for public reference. PM2.5 air quality this was the concept of chaos, and finally common sense is expected to become part of people’s lives. How, then, clearance of PM 2.5 air quality significance, which monitors foreign experience, how to local conditions in China to carry out this new business, the experts do for us a clear answer.
Europe and developing countries to tighten monitoring of maturing standards
Total suspended particulate matter (PM100), respirable particulate matter (PM10) and particulate matter into the lungs (PM2 .5) is the ambient air quality monitoring in the three concepts often used, they represent three different sizes of air pollutants on human health and the environment have a major impact on air quality. Countries around the world to monitor airborne particles from the wide experience of the standard to strict monitoring of objects descending process of development, European and American countries and some developing countries have been gradually incorporated into the P M2 .5 local air quality standards for mandatory restrictions.
PM 2.5: impact of the EU average life expectancy
Aerodynamics and meteorology in the environment, the particles are classified according to diameter size, particle size less than 100 microns, known as T SP (T otal Suspended Particle), the total suspended particulate; particle size less than 10 microns referred to as PM10 (PM to ParticulateMatter abbreviation), particles can be inhaled; particle size less than 2.5 microns is called PM2.5, particulate matter into the lungs can be, its diameter is only about the thickness of a human hair 1 / 20.
Weather experts and medical experts believe that more than 10 micron size particles, will be blocked out in the human nose; diameter of 2.5 microns to 10 microns between the particles can enter the upper respiratory tract, but some can be sputum so excreted, it may be blocking the hair inside the nose, harmful to human health is relatively small; and diameter of 2.5 microns or less fine particulate matter (PM2.5), can not easily be blocked; compared with PM10, PM2. 5 are more dangerous because when inhaled, PM2.5 may reach the bronchioles, the lungs and interfere with gas exchange, triggering including asthma, bronchitis and cardiovascular disease and other aspects of the disease.
PM2.5 air quality and visibility for greater impact. And coarse particulate matter compared to the atmosphere, PM2.5 particle size is small, contains large amounts of toxic and hazardous substances, and long life, transmission distance, and thus on human health and air quality impact of greater visibility of the impact on air more intuitive than the PM 10.
In general, particle size 2.5 micron to 10 micron coarse particles from road dust and other primary sources; particle size of 2.5 microns or less fine particulate matter PM2.5, mainly daily power generation, industrial production, car emissions and other processes through emissions of combustion residues, such as vehicle exhaust, coal, etc., usually contain heavy metals and other toxic substances.
World Health Organization released a report, both developed and developing countries, the majority of urban and rural populations are now exposed to the health effects of particulate matter. Mortality in cities with high pollution beyond the relatively cleaner cities by 15-20%. According to statistics, in Europe, PM2.5 cause 386,000 deaths each year, and to the EU countries average life expectancy is 8.6 months lower.
States: surveillance by the width to the strict standards
2005 World Health Organization issued the Values for the most demanding standards, is derived based on scientific ideal of the Institute, less risk to human health limits for particulate matter.
WHO guideline value set high standards, even some developed countries, it is difficult to achieve immediately, therefore, the establishment of the WHO guideline value in the same time, established for PM2.5 and PM10 three gradient transition target period, the requirements of the transition period than the target value is relatively loose criteria. WHO believes that, by adopting a continuous, long-lasting pollution control measures, which target the transition period can be gradually achieved; transition period to help countries assess target efforts to reduce particulate matter concentration in the process of progress.
The world, some countries and regions have gradually PM10 and PM2 .5 into the local air quality standards for mandatory restrictions. Overall, the countries of the monitoring and control of particulate matter showed the following characteristics:
A monitoring system developed gradually improved from the loose to strict monitoring standards.
Beginning on the 1970s and 1980s, European countries began issuing limited quantitative indicators of the concentration of airborne particles. Initially, the air quality guidelines for Europe and the limit of particulate matter in general terms, there is no breakdown of the size of particles. In 1987, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency developed the first time the limit for P M1 0 standard. 1997, the United States in the In 2006, the United States revised air quality standards, the concentration of P M2 .5 proposed a more stringent standard limit.
In accordance with current U.S. standards, PM10 daily average concentration limit of 150 micrograms / cubic meter, equivalent to WHO to determine the first transition PM10 target value; P M2 .5 daily average concentration limit of 35 micrograms / cubic meter, the annual are the concentration limit of 15 micrograms / cubic meter, roughly equivalent to WHO PM2 .5 transition period established by the third target.
Since the 1980s, the EU started to focus on monitoring of air particulate matter. In 2005, the European Union on the restriction of P M10 of the law came into force; 2010, the monitoring of PM 2 .5 standard to take effect. Currently, the EU’s air quality standards contained an average concentration of P M10 with the daily average concentration, P M2 .5 annual average concentrations of the requirements for P M10 is the world’s most stringent standards for monitoring one of the regions. EU PM 10 daily average concentration limit (50 micrograms / cubic meter) has reached the WHO guideline value set by the standard.
Second, strict enforcement of European and American countries, harsh penalties for excessive behavior.
Atmospheric Physics, Nanjing University of Information Engineering, vice president, Zhu Bin expert on air quality that air quality monitoring, enforcement is difficult legislative easy; Europe and other countries currently have formulated a comprehensive air quality laws, and strictly enforced, do not standards were very harsh punishment.
It is understood that the EU air quality laws in the early years of the implementation of the EU member states decide to allow the air quality standards implementation. However, the fragmentation leading to failure to abide by all its members. In 2005, 27 EU member states and 23 countries in the emergence of PM10 concentration in excess of the situation.
In 2008, the European Commission adopted a new Air Quality Act (2 0 0 8 / 5 0 / EC), started to strictly monitor the implementation of air quality standards, excessive acts of severe punishment, and some exceeded the city could face up to € 700,000 per day of fine.
Third, some developing countries have begun to monitor PM 2.5.
In recent years, some developing countries also tightened P M2 .5 and P M10 monitoring standards, such as India and Mexico. India, for example, Indian Ministry of Environment and Forestry in 1994 to implement the air quality standards for total suspended particles and contains only P M1 0 monitoring requirements, the revised standard in 2009 removed to the total suspended particulate matter control targets, additional P M2 .5 limit indicators, requiring industrial areas, residential areas, rural and other areas of the PM 2 .5 annual and daily average concentration shall not exceed 40 micrograms / cubic meter; P M10 average and maximum daily concentration were 60 micrograms / cubic meter and 100 micrograms / cubic meter, roughly three in the WHO interim target set range.
China: technology has been proven to be steadily implemented
Currently, air quality standards used in China in 1982 promulgated the of
November 2011, the Chinese Ministry of Environmental Protection published so, this is the first time in the development of P M2 .5 China’s national environmental quality standards. In the draft, P M2 .5 annual and daily average concentration limits were set at 35 micrograms / cubic meter and 75 micrograms / cubic meter, equivalent to the WHO set a transitional period of the first target. New standard intended to January 1, 2016 fully implemented.
The recently held 2012 National Work Conference on Environmental Protection, Environmental Protection Minister Zhou Shengxian said in 2012, in Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei and the Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta region and other key cities and municipalities and provincial capitals PM2.5 and ozone monitoring. PM2 .5 monitoring with the implementation schedule.
Reporters interviewed the experts learned that, due to air pollution in different regions of China, economic development and environmental management requirements are quite different, new indicators to monitor the hardware and software to carry out a series of preparatory work, so the new standards need to be phased. Experts suggest that PM2.5 monitoring in China should pay attention to the following questions:
First, the emphasis throughout the monitoring technology, equipment, personnel, funding of regional differences, gradual, steady implementation.
Some experts believe that although China currently has a mature P M2 .5 monitoring technology, and has in some cities, including P M2 .5 pilot, including urban air quality monitoring, but unity in the country to carry out P M2 .5 monitoring involves installation of equipment acquisition, data quality control, professional training, financial resources to support the preparation of such a large number of systems and capacity-building, there is currently a nationwide PM2.5 monitoring work carried out immediately there are some difficulties, the need to gradually push to open.
Second, the complete set of management measures to speed up industrial upgrading, and effectively control the PM2.5 concentration.
Vice president of Nanjing University of Information Engineering Physics Zhu Bin believes that the reason why China has not yet been incorporated into the P M2 .5 mandatory monitoring indicators, an important reason is that China has not yet completed in the case of upgrading the industrial structure, some cities in China the current concentration of PM2.5 in Western countries may be several times or even ten times, even if the standard for PM2.5 monitoring, control PM2 .5 to substantial concentrations are still faced with great difficulty.
Zhu Bin suggested that the air purification costs.
Third, reform of the local officials of the appropriate environmental performance evaluation criteria, to reduce PM 2.5 monitoring the implementation of the local resistance.
P M2 .5 has been involved in monitoring our standards development work of the Institute of Tropical and Marine Meteorology, China Meteorological Administration, Guangzhou Wu against the principal investigator, told reporters that China PM2.5 monitoring the implementation of technical barriers to small, the main obstacle is the performance of local officials evaluation system. Wu against that, big pressure.
Wu against that fundamentally change the number of days local officials CD quality performance evaluation system for environmental protection is the key to solving this problem.